Agrarian Science and Food Technologies


Issue №: 4(103)

Published: 2019.02.28

У збірнику висвітлено питання підвищення продуктивності виробництва продукції сільського і рибного господарства, технології виробництва і переробки продукції тваринництва, харчових технологій та інженерії, водних біоресурсів і аквакультури

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Kulik M.F., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Corresponding

Member of the National Academy of Agriculture Sciences of Ukraine

Didorenko T.O., Junior Researchers

Gonchar L.O., Junior Researchers

Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya

Tkachenko T.Yu., Postgraduate Student

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University


Urea is the main nitrogenous end product arising from the catabolism of amino acids that are not used in biosynthetic reactions in mammals. Urea production should reflect not only alterations in the dietary intake of protein and patterns of utilization of amino acid but also an animals ability to retain dietary nitrogen in the body. Improving feed efficiency of pigs with dietary application of amino acids (AAs) is becoming increasingly important because this practice can not only secure the plasma AA supply for muscle growth but also protect the environment from nitrogen discharge with feces and urine. Lysine, the first limiting AA in typical swine diets, is a substrate for generating body proteins, peptides, and non-peptide molecules, while excess lysine is catabolized as an energy source. From a regulatory standpoint, lysine is at the top level in controlling AA metabolism, and lysine can also affect the metabolism of other nutrients. Dietary deficiency of lysine will impair animal immunity and elevate animal susceptibility to infectious diseases. Because lysine deficiency has negative impact on animal health and growth performance and it appears that dietary lysine is non-toxic even at a high dose of supplementation, nutritional emphasis should be put on lysine supplementation to avoid its deficiency rather than toxicity. Nevertheless, the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms regarding lysine effect on muscle protein accretion merits further clarification. Urinary urea excretion of pigs fed diets differing in amino acid adequacy was measured. It has been established that the urea content in blood, muscle tissue (meat) and liver in the experimental group of pigs is lower compared to control at a higher level of lysine in raw diet proteins. The urea content in the blood, muscle and liver of pigs in the control group is 12 g, 2 g, respectively, and much less in the liver. At the same time, the data in the pigs of the experimental group will be lower by 22-24%, while the content of lysine in the raw protein of the ration is higher by an average of 29%. Results of studies of urea content in pig blood indicate that in the experimental group it was 24% lower than control. Thus, the content of lysine in the raw pig protein of the experimental group was 6,67% in the first period versus 4,88% in the control and consequently in the final 4,8% and 4,15%, which indicates a lower level of deamination of amino acids and as a consequence a higher level of protein synthesis in muscle tissues and a higher increase in live weight of animals. The analysis of urea content in blood, muscle tissue and liver in the experimental group of pigs is lower compared to the control at higher levels of lysine in the raw protein. One can make a conclusion about the feedback between the level of lysine in the raw protein protein and the content of urea in the blood, muscle tissue and the liver of pigs. The higher level of lysine in the raw protein of the ration is provided by lower levels of urea in the body of animals. If after the slaughter to balance the urea content in the blood, muscle and liver of the pigs in the control group, its content in the total amount of muscle tissue (meat) is about 12 g, blood is  about 2 g and the liver is much smaller. In pigs in the experimental group, these indicators will be lower by 22-24%, while the content of lysine in the raw protein of the ration is higher by an average of 29%. These data suggest that total urinary excretion levels can be used as an indicator of protein quality and possibly to assess the amino acid requirements of swine and other non ruminant animals.

Keywords: urea, pig, lysine, crude protein, ration, muscle tissue, blood, liver

List of references

1. Pond U.Dzh. & Khaupt K.A. (1983). Byolohyia svyny [Pig biology]. Moskva: Kolos [in Russian].

2. Kulyk M.F. & Krasnoselska M.P. (2017). Zabiini pokaznyky svynei pry vykorystanni v hodivli ekstrudovanoi soi v poiednanni z biolohichno mineralnoiu dobavkoiu na osnovi lizynu i saponitu [Slaughter rates of pigs when used for feeding extruded soya in conjunction with a biologically mineral additive based on lysine and saponite]. Ahrarna nauka ta kharchovi tekhnolohii. 51-59 [in Ukrainian].

3. Kalashnykov, A.P., Fisinin (2003). Normy i ratsyony kormlenyia selskokhoziaistvennykh zhyvotnykh. Spravochnoe posobye. 3-e yzd. pererab. y dop. [Norms and diets feeding farm animals. Reference manual. 3rd ed. reclaiming and add.] Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

4. Petrychenko, V.F. (2016). Soya: monografiya / Vinny`cya: Dilo. [in Ukrainian].

5. Ovsiannykov, A.Y. (1989). Metodyka opytnoho dela [Experimental technique]. Moskva: Ahropromyzdat. [in Russian].

6. Vlizlo, V.V. (2012). Laboratorni metody doslidzhen u biolohii, tvarynnytstvi ta veterynarnii medytsyni: dovidnyk [Laboratory methods of research in biology, livestock and veterinary medicine: a guide]. Lviv: Spolom [in Ukrainian].

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About journal

Topics of the journal:

Аnimal feeding and feed technology; current problems of animal breeding, breeding and hygiene; food safety and food processing technology; aquatic bioresources and aquaculture

Key information:
ISSN (print): 2616-728X
DOI: -------

 Certificate of state registration of the print media: КВ № 21523-11423Р 18.08.2015

 Founder of the collection: Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Georgia Academy of Agricultural Sciences

 Editor-in-Chief: Viktor Mazur, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Associate Professor, VNAU (Vinnytsia)

 Deputy editors-in-chief: Aleksidze G.M., D.Sc.(Ph.D.), academician of the Academy of agricultural sciences of Georgia; Yaremchuk O.S., D.Sc.(Ph.D.) Professor, University of Vinnitsa (Vinnytsia)

 Secretary in charge: L. Kazmiruk

 Editorial Board full list

Editorial board

Mazur Viktor, Candidate of Science, Associate Professor of VNAU (Editor-in-Chief);

Guram Aleksidze, Ph.D., Academician of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences Georgia (Deputy Editor-in-Chief);

Yaremchuk Oleksandr, Ph.D., Professor, VNAU (Deputy Editor-in-Chief);

Members of the Editorial Board:

Ibatullin Ildus, Ph.D., Professor, Academician, NULES;

Kaletnik Hryhoriy Ph.D. (Economics), Academician of NAAS of Ukraine, VNAU;

Zakharenko Mykola Oleksandrovych, Ph.D., Professor, NULES;

Vashakidze Archil, Ph.D., Academician, National Coordinator for Agricultural Electrification and Automation (Georgia);

Giorgadze Anatoly, Ph.D. (Engineering), Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Georgia;

Grib Josip, Ph.D, Professor of NUHPP;

Dzhaparidze Givi, Ph.D. (Economics), Academician, Vice-President of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences science of Georgia;

Georgiy Yeresko, Ph.D. (Engineering), Professor, Corresponding Member of NAAS of Ukraine, Institute of Food Resources;

Vlasenko Volodymyr, Ph.D.(Engineering), Professor of VTEI;

Kulyk Mykhaylo, Ph.D., Professor, Corresponding Member of NAAS of Ukraine, VNAU;

Kucheriaviy Vitaliy, Ph.D.(Engineering), Professor, VNAU;

Lysenko Alexander, Ph.D., Professor, Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science, Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Minsk);

Lyotka Halyna, Ph.D., Associate Professor of VNAU;

Mazurenko Mykola, Ph.D., (Engineering), Professor;

Polishchuk Galina, Ph.D., Associate Professor;

Sychevsky Mykola, Ph.D.(Economics), Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Food Resources;

Skoromna Oksana, Ph.D., Associate Professor;

Chagelishvili Revaz, Ph.D., Academician, National Forestry Coordinator (Georgia);

Chudak Roman, Ph.D., (Engineering), Professor, VNAU;

Sheiko Ivan, Doctor of Science, Professor, Institute of Animal Science of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Zhodino);

Kazmyruk Larisa, Ph.D., Associate Professor of VNAU (secretary in charge).

Edition: Collection

Type of publication for the intended purpose: scientific

Edition status: shared

Year of foundation: 2015

Frequency: 1 to 5 times a year

Volume: 4 to 10 ppm (format A-4)

Edition language: (different languages) Ukrainian, Georgian, English, Russian


Scope and category of readers: nationwide, foreign researchers, university professors, graduate students, students and professionals of agriculture and fisheries and food production

Article publishing is a paid service. Cost for printing in professional publications in accordance with the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of August 27, 2010 No. 796 "On approval of the list of paid services that can be provided by state educational institutions, other institutions of educational system belonging to state and communal ownership" and the Rector Order of the Higher Education University Mazur V.A. dated March 14, 2018 No. 93 “On setting the cost of printing in professional editions of the University”.

The cost of printing one page in professional editions of the university is 60 UAH.


Beneficiary: Vinnytsia National Agrarian University MFO 820172 Current account No. 31256282102055 code 00497236 Bank State Treasury Service of Ukraine, Kyiv. VAT payer code 004972302286. Registration number 100271744. Purpose of payment: for printing an article in the collection: "Agrarian science and food technology".

History of journal:

Agrarian Science and Food Technology  Established in 1994 under the name of the Collection of Scientific Works of VSAU.

According to the Resolution of the Presidium of the Higher Attestation Commission of Ukraine of September 11, 1997, this publication has acquired the status of a professional, in which it is allowed to publish the main results of the dissertation research in the fields of "Agronomy", "Animal engineering" and "Economic Sciences".

In 2001-2014 it was published under the title "Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University".

Since 2015 it is:"Agricultural Science and Food Technologies".


Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine in agricultural sciences under the name "Agrarian Science and Food Technologies" (ground: Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016 No. 515).